Gps navigation system

Automotive navigation system - Wikipedia

Navigation with Gosmore, an open source routing software, on a personal navigation assistant with free map data from OpenStreetMap.

An automotive navigation system is part of the automobile controls or a third party add-on used to find direction in an automobile. It typically uses a satellite navigation device to get its position data which is then correlated to a position on a road. When directions are needed routing can be calculated. On the fly traffic information can be used to adjust the route.

Dead reckoning using distance data from sensors attached to the drivetrain, a gyroscope and an accelerometer can be used for greater reliability, as GPS signal loss and/or multipath can occur due to urban canyons or tunnels.

Mathematically, automotive navigation is based on the shortest path problem, within graph theory, which examines how to identify the path that best meets some criteria (shortest, cheapest, fastest, etc.) between two points in a large network.


Automotive navigation systems represent a convergence of a number of diverse technologies many of which have been available for many years, but were too costly or inaccessible. Limitations such as batteries, display, and processing power had to be overcome before the product became commercially viable.[1]

  • 1961: Hidetsugu Yagi was designed wireless-based navigation system. This design was still primitive and intended for military-use.
  • 1966: General Motors Research (GMR) was working on a non-satellite-based navigation and assistance system called DAIR (Driver Aid, Information & Routing). After initial tests GM found that it was not a scalable or practical way to provide navigation assistance. Decades later, however, the concept would be reborn as OnStar (founded 1996).[2]
  • 1973: Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI) and Fuji Heavy Industries sponsored CATC (Comprehensive Automobile Traffic Control), a Japanese research project on automobile navigation systems.[3]
  • 1979: MITI established JSK (Association of Electronic Technology for Automobile Traffic and Driving) in Japan.[3]
  • 1980: Electronic Auto Compass with new mechanism on the Toyota Crown.
  • 1981: The earlier research of CATC leads to the first generation of automobile navigation systems from Japanese companies Honda, Nissan and Toyota. They used dead reckoning technology.[3]
  • 1981: Honda's Electro Gyro-Cator was the first commercially available car navigation system. It used inertial navigation systems, which tracked the distance traveled, the start point, and direction headed.[4] It was also the first with a map display.[3]
  • 1981: Navigation computer on the Toyota Celica (NAVICOM).[5]
  • 1983: Etak was founded. It made an early system that used map-matching to improve on dead reckoning instrumentation. Digital map information was stored on standard cassette tapes.[6]
  • 1987: Toyota introduced the World's first CD-ROM-based navigation system on the Toyota Crown.[7]
  • 1990: Mazda Eunos Cosmo became the first car with built-in GPS-navigation system[8]
  • 1991: Toyota introduced GPS car navigation on the Toyota Soarer.
  • 1991: Mitsubishi introduced GPS car navigation on the Mitsubishi Debonair (MMCS: Mitsubishi Multi Communication System).[9]
  • 1992: Voice assisted GPS navigation system on the Toyota Celsior.
  • 1993: The Austrian channel ORF airs a presentation of the software company bitMAP and its head Werner Liebig's invention, an electronic city map including street names and house numbers, using a satellite-based navigation system. bitMAP attends Comdex in Las Vegas the same year, but doesn't manage to market itself properly.
  • 1994: BMW 7 series E38 first European model featuring GPS navigation. The navigation system was developed in cooperation with Philips (Philips CARIN).[10]
  • 1995: Oldsmobile introduced the first GPS navigation system available in a United States production car, called GuideStar.[11]
  • 1995: Device called "Mobile Assistant" or short, MASS, produced by Munich-based company ComRoad AG, won the title "Best Product in Mobile Computing" on CeBit by magazine Byte. It offered turn-by-turn navigation via wireless internet connection, with both GPS and speed sensor in the car.
  • 1997: Navigation system using Differential GPS developed as a factory-installed option on the Toyota Prius[12]
  • 1998: First DVD-based navigation system introduced on the Toyota Progres.
  • 2000: The United States made a more accurate GPS signal available for civilian use.[13]
  • 2003: Toyota introduced the first Hard disk drive-based navigation system and the industry's first DVD-based navigation system with a built-in Electronic throttle control
  • 2007: Toyota introduced Map on Demand, a technology for distributing map updates to car navigation systems, developed as the first of its kind in the world
  • 2008: World's first navigation system-linked brake assist function and Navigation system linked to Adaptive Variable Suspension System (NAVI/AI-AVS) on Toyota Crown


The road database is a vector map. Street names or numbers and house numbers, as well as points of interest (waypoints), are encoded as geographic coordinates. This enables users to find a desired destination by street address or as geographic coordinates. (See map database management.)

Map database formats are almost uniformly proprietary, with no industry standards for satellite navigation maps, although some companies are trying to address this with SDAL and Navigation Data Standard (NDS). Map data vendors such as Tele Atlas and Navteq create the base map in a GDF (Geographic Data Files) format, but each electronics manufacturer compiles it in an optimized, usually proprietary manner. GDF is not a CD standard for car navigation systems. GDF is used and converted onto the CD-ROM in the internal format of the navigation system. CDF (CARiN Database Format) is a proprietary navigation map format created by Philips.

SDAL is a proprietary map format developed by Navteq, which was released royalty free in the hope that it would become an industry standard for digital navigation maps, has not been very widely adopted by the industry. Vendors who used this format include:

Navigation Data Standard (NDS)[edit]

The Navigation Data Standard (NDS) initiative, is an industry grouping of car manufacturers, navigation system suppliers and map data suppliers whose objective is the standardization of the data format used in car navigation systems, as well as allow a map update capability. The NDS effort began in 2004 and became a registered association in 2009.[14] Standardization would improve interoperability, specifically by allowing the same navigation maps to be used in navigation systems from 20 manufacturers.[15] Companies involved include BMW, Volkswagen, Daimler, Renault, ADIT, Aisin AW, Alpine Electronics, Navigon, Navis-AMS, Bosch, DENSO, Mitsubishi, Harman International Industries, Panasonic, Preh Car Connect formerly TechniSat, PTV, Continental AG, Clarion, Navteq, Navinfo, TomTom and Zenrin.


The road database may be stored in solid state read-only memory (ROM), optical media (CD or DVD), solid state flash memory, magnetic media (hard disk), or a combination. A common scheme is to have a base map permanently stored in ROM that can be augmented with detailed information for a region the user is interested in. A ROM is always programmed at the factory; the other media may be preprogrammed, downloaded from a CD or DVD via a computer or wireless connection (bluetooth, Wi-Fi), or directly used utilizing a card reader.

Some navigation device makers provide free map updates for their customers. These updates are often obtained from the vendor's website, which is accessed by connecting the navigation device to a PC.

Real-time data[edit]

Some systems can receive and display information on traffic congestion using either TMC, RDS, or by GPRS/3G data transmission via mobile phones.

Integration and other functions[edit]

Original factory equipment[edit]

Many vehicle manufacturers offer a GPS navigation device as an option in their vehicles. Customers whose vehicles did not ship with GPS can therefore purchase and retrofit the original factory-supplied GPS unit. In some cases this can be a straightforward "plug-and-play" installation if the required wiring harness is already present in the vehicle. However, with some manufacturers, new wiring is required, making the installation more complex.

The primary benefit of this approach is an integrated and factory-standard installation. Many original systems also contain a gyrocompass and/or an accelerometer and may accept input from the vehicle's speed sensors and reverse gear engagement signal output, thereby allowing them to navigate via dead reckoning when a GPS signal is temporarily unavailable.[16] However, the costs can be considerably higher than other options.


Establishing points of interest in real-time and transmitting them via GSM cellular telephone networks using the Short Message Service (SMS) is referred to as Gps2sms. Some vehicles and vessels are equipped with hardware that is able to automatically send an SMS text message when a particular event happens, such as theft, anchor drift or breakdown. The receiving party (e.g., a tow truck) can store the waypoint in a computer system, draw a map indicating the location, or see it in an automotive navigation system.

See also[edit]



Best GPS System 2017 | GPS Navigation Reviews

GPS, an acronym for global position system, is mostly used today for tracking, mapping, and transport. It can be hard to find the best GPS system, whether you need it for a car, truck, boat or anything else. (The Garmin Nuvi 57LM is our top pick). Since it is space-based, it provides information on location and time under all weather conditions anywhere on earth. With 30 GPS satellites present to this day, including spares, their orbits are spread out that it allows anyone on Earth to have at least 6 steady lines in sight.

Top 10 GPS Units

Today, there are hundreds of different GPS units available in the market, 10 of which we will focus on with their individually captivating features. See our list below:

1) Garmin nüvi 2597LMT 5-Inch Bluetooth Portable Vehicle GPS with Lifetime Maps and Traffic

This 5-inch portable Garmin nüvi 2597LMT vehicle GPS is packed with Bluetooth and uses Real Directions and Real Voice for lifetime maps and traffic for easier navigation and smoother tracking. It is easier to connect to a satellite and has an improved user-friendly, dual-oriented, and touchscreen interface. It displays a clear map chart while you drive and updates your GPS screen real-time. Using your smartphone, you can connect to the Smartphone Link to share information to others, like location and destination.

Click Here to get the Garmin nuvi 2597LMT 5-Inch Bluetooth Portable Vehicle GPS with Lifetime Maps and Traffic 2597LMT

2) Garmin nüvi 2557LMT 5-Inch Portable Vehicle GPS with Lifetime Maps and Traffic

This Bluetooth-free GPS unit updates your system with detailed maps of North America with free lifestyle traffic alerts. The Garmin nüvi 2557LMT GPS boasts of its 5-inch TFT touchscreen with white backlight and manual dual-orientation display. It also includes Active Lane Guidance and a Real/Bird’s Eye.

Click Here to get the Garmin nüvi 2557LMT 5-Inch Portable Vehicle GPS with Lifetime Maps and Traffic

3) Garmin nüvi 2797LMT 7-Inch Portable Bluetooth Vehicle GPS with Lifetime Maps and Traffic

Garmin nüvi 2797LMT GPS has a wider screen that allows information to be seen easier at first glance. Customising the device to your personal preferences and needs is much improved and gives you many options. The directions are equally easy to navigate and understand and the speed indicator keeps you on your driving limit. This unit provides clear instructions from its automated speaker and the brightness setting is easily changeable.

Click Here to get the Garmin nüvi 2797LMT 7-Inch Portable Bluetooth Vehicle GPS with Lifetime Maps and Traffic

4) Garmin nüvi 55LMT GPS Navigators System with Spoken Turn-By-Turn Directions, Preloaded Maps and Speed Limit Displays (Lower 49 U.S. States)

The Garmin nüvi 55LMT GPS has a more sensitive touch screen that responds at the slightest touch. With a 5-inch screen, the information is easier to read and the device is more suitable for driving. The speed indicator alerts you when you go past the speeding limit, the sounds are clearer and louder, and the screen is customisable with its brightness level. The keyboard lets you to put in information easier.

Click Here to get the Garmin nüvi 55LMT GPS Navigators System with Spoken Turn-By-Turn Directions, Preloaded Maps and Speed Limit Displays

5) Garmin nüvi 65LMT GPS Navigators System with Spoken Turn-By-Turn Directions, Preloaded Maps and Speed Limit Displays (Lower 49 U.S. States)

Garmin nüvi 65LMT GPS allows a hefty amount of addresses to be put into the device, allowing you to easily choose from your list of destinations. It alerts you every time you pass by a school zone. The spoken turn-by-turn directions improve navigation while driving, with a friendlier voice-over that gives clear-cut instructions to your destination. The larger screen is easier to look at and is more suitable for driving.

Click Here to get the Garmin nüvi 65LMT GPS Navigators System with Spoken Turn-By-Turn Directions, Preloaded Maps and Speed Limit Displays

6) TomTom VIA 1505M World Traveler Edition GPS Navigator with Lifetime Maps

The TomTom VIA 1505M GPS Navigator (World Traveler Edition) works great for many European travellers as it works fantastic over every city in Europe. It boasts of clear and understandable turn-by-turn instructions and the updated maps work like a charm. This device is also lightweight, making it easy to carry around everywhere.

Click Here to get the TomTom VIA 1505M World Traveler Edition GPS Navigator with Lifetime Maps

7) Bosion 6.2-inch Double DIN GPS Navigation for Universal Car Free Backup Camera

Users are highly impressed with this device, with the FM transmitter working perfectly. You can also freely operate and maneuver with the GPS and the DVD player while on the road. The back up camera also works like magic, as well as the Bluetooth. Bosion’s 6.2-inch Double DIN GPS Navigation is also armed with a turn-by-turn voice and a radio with a good reception.

Click Here to get the Bosion 6.2-inch Double DIN Gps Navigation for Universal Car Free Backup Camera

8) Rand McNally Intelliroute TND 520 Truck GPS with Lifetime Maps (Certified Refurbished)

This GPS unit works wonderfully for truck drivers out there are as this device informs you of the truck stops ahead once you plug it in to your car system. It leads you from point A to point B without any hassle and gives you a lot of options for routes to take. The screen is relatively easy to read and the directions are understandable.

Click Here to get the Rand McNally Intelliroute TND 520 Truck GPS with Lifetime Maps

9) TomTom VIA 1505M 5-Inch Portable GPS Navigator with Lifetime Maps

The TomTom VIA 1505M GPS has a friendly price for common GPS users, the device itself boasts of a fast re-routing system, the screen is large enough to allow easy access to information and directions, and the unit’s size is slender and suitable for hand-carry. With road instructions, this unit is very helpful with the intersections and routes.

Click Here to get the TomTom VIA 1505M 5-Inch Portable GPS Navigator with Lifetime Maps

10) Rand McNally TND730 IntelliRoute GPS Truck Navigator

Rand McNally Truck Navigator keeps you right on track in your area. What most users find worthy of this GPS unit is its feature to give off mile markers both on map and on information screen; it also tells your current location. It’s also packed with impressively accurate routes, and its ability to show you truck stops ahead and alternative routes including toll and non-toll roads.

Click Here to get the Rand McNally TND730 IntelliRoute GPS Truck Navigator

GPS Units Review

Almost all Garmin nüvi models are packed with Real Voice and Real Directions features, like Garmin nüvi 2597LMT and Garmin nüvi 2557LMT, but if you’re looking for a wide-enough screen that fits all the information you need, opt for the Garmin nüvi 2797LMT. As with truck navigators, the Bosion 6.2-inch Double DIN is the most basic GPS unit featured in the list. With performance, both Rand McNally Intelliroute TND 520 and TND730 easily inform you of truck stops and alternative routes, the latter also showing you mile markers. The TomTom VIA 1505M is known for its improved technical and design features, while travelers prefer the Rand McNally Intelliroute TND 520 for European travels.

What Makes A Good GPS Navigation System?

So what should you look for when buying one?

  • The display of the GPS system should be fairly large so that you can easily look at the map while driving. You don’t want to have to bust out a magnifying glass while rocketing down the highway just to see where the next turn is.
  • The GPS navigation system should have a loud and easy to understand voice. After all, you can’t always take your eyes off of the road, so you will need to be able to hear the directions audibly.
  • The GPS needs to have lots of preloaded maps. You don’t want to find yourself driving in an area of which your GPS navigation system has no map for it. Get model that at least has the maps that you need for where you live.
  • A good navigation system needs to have a direction feature, which means that you should be able to enter a start location and a destination in order to get an exact route.
  • Should come with weather and traffic updates so that you can choose to take a different route if the situation calls for it, or at least so you know what is happening on the road.
  • Should also be able to connect to the internet in some way so that you can load new maps and info onto it.

We have also covered Fish Finders, if you need some help there too.

GPS Navigation System

The Global Positioning System (GPS) , is an intermediate circular orbit (ICO) satellite navigation system used for determining one's precise location and providing a highly accurate time reference almost anywhere on Earth. The satellites in the GPS constellation are called NAVSTAR (Navigation System using Timing And ranging).

The system consists of a "constellation" of at least 24 satellites in 6 orbital planes. Each satellite circles the Earth twice every day at an altitude of 20,200 kilometers. The satellites carry atomic clocks and constantly broadcast the precise time according to their own clock, along with administrative information including the orbital elements of their own motion, as determined by a set of ground-based observatories.

There are two frequencies in use: 1575.42 MHz (referred to as L1), and 1227.60 MHz (L2). The L1 signal carries a publicly usable coarse-acquisition (C/A) code as well as an encrypted P(Y) code. The L2 signal usually carries only the P(Y) code. The keys required to directly use the P(Y) code are tightly controlled by the U.S. government and are generally provided only for military use.

Satellite Date LS   Launcher Remarks: NTS 2 (P76-4) 23.06.1977 Va SLC-3W Atlas-F SGS-1 GPS 1 (Navstar 1, OPS 5111) 22.02.1978 Va SLC-3E Atlas-F SGS-1 GPS 2 (Navstar 2, OPS 5112) 13.05.1978 Va SLC-3E Atlas-F SGS-1 GPS 3 (Navstar 3, OPS 5113) 07.10.1978 Va SLC-3E Atlas-F SGS-1 GPS 4 (Navstar 4, OPS 5114) 11.12.1978 Va SLC-3E Atlas-F SGS-1 GPS 5 (Navstar 5, OPS 5117) 09.02.1980 Va SLC-3E Atlas-F SGS-1 GPS 6 (Navstar 6, OPS 5118) 26.04.1980 Va SLC-3E Atlas-F SGS-1 GPS 7 (Navstar 7) 19.12.1981 Va SLC-3E F Atlas-E SGS-1 GPS 8 (Navstar 8, OPS 9794) 14.07.1983 Va SLC-3W Atlas-E SGS-2 GPS 9 (Navstar 9, USA 1) 13.06.1984 Va SLC-3W Atlas-E SGS-2 GPS 10 (Navstar 10, USA 5) 08.09.1984 Va SLC-3W Atlas-E SGS-2 GPS 11 (Navstar 11, USA 10) 08.10.1985 Va SLC-3W Atlas-E SGS-2 GPS-2 0 (Navstar 12) not launched GPS-2 1 (Navstar 14, USA 35) 14.02.1989 CC LC-17A Delta-6925 GPS-2 2 (Navstar 13, USA 38) 10.06.1989 CC LC-17A Delta-6925 GPS-2 3 (Navstar 16, USA 42) 18.08.1989 CC LC-17A Delta-6925 GPS-2 4 (Navstar 19, USA 47) 21.10.1989 CC LC-17A Delta-6925 GPS-2 5 (Navstar 17, USA 49) 11.12.1989 CC LC-17B Delta-6925 GPS-2 6 (Navstar 18, USA 50) 24.01.1990 CC LC-17A Delta-6925 GPS-2 7 (Navstar 20, USA 54) 25.03.1990 CC LC-17A Delta-6925 GPS-2 8 (Navstar 21, USA 63) 02.08.1990 CC LC-17A Delta-6925 GPS-2 9 (Navstar 15, USA 64) 01.10.1990 CC LC-17A Delta-6925 GPS-2A 1 (Navstar 23, USA 66) 26.11.1990 CC LC-17A Delta-7925 GPS-2A 2 (Navstar 24, USA 71) 04.07.1991 CC LC-17A Delta-7925 with Losat X GPS-2A 3 (Navstar 25, USA 79) 23.02.1992 CC LC-17B Delta-7925 GPS-2A 4 (Navstar 28, USA 80) 10.04.1992 CC LC-17B Delta-7925 GPS-2A 5 (Navstar 26, USA 83) 07.07.1992 CC LC-17B Delta-7925 GPS-2A 6 (Navstar 27, USA 84) 09.09.1992 CC LC-17A Delta-7925 GPS-2A 7 (Navstar 32, USA 85) 22.11.1992 CC LC-17A Delta-7925 GPS-2A 8 (Navstar 29, USA 87) 18.12.1992 CC LC-17B Delta-7925 GPS-2A 9 (Navstar 22, USA 88) 02.02.1993 CC LC-17A Delta-7925 GPS-2A 10 (Navstar 31, USA 90) 29.03.1993 CC LC-17A Delta-7925 with SEDS 1 GPS-2A 11 (Navstar 37, USA 91) 14.05.1993 CC LC-17A Delta-7925 GPS-2A 12 (Navstar 39, USA 92) 26.06.1993 CC LC-17A Delta-7925 with PMG GPS-2A 13 (Navstar 35, USA 94) 30.08.1993 CC LC-17B Delta-7925 GPS-2A 14 (Navstar 34, USA 96) 26.10.1993 CC LC-17B Delta-7925 GPS-2A 15 (Navstar 36, USA 100) 10.03.1994 CC LC-17A Delta-7925 with SEDS 2 GPS-2A 16 (Navstar 33, USA 117) 28.03.1996 CC LC-17B Delta-7925 GPS-2A 17 (Navstar 40, USA 126) 16.07.1996 CC LC-17A Delta-7925 GPS-2A 18 (Navstar 30, USA 128) 12.09.1996 CC LC-17A Delta-7925 GPS-2R 1 (Navstar 42) 16.01.1997 CC LC-17A F Delta-7925 GPS-2R 2 (Navstar 43, USA 132) 23.07.1997 CC LC-17A Delta-7925 GPS-2A 19 (Navstar 38, USA 135) 06.11.1997 CC LC-17A Delta-7925 GPS-2R 3 (Navstar 46, USA 145) 07.10.1999 CC SLC-17A Delta-7925 GPS-2R 4 (Navstar 51, USA 150) 11.05.2000 CC SLC-17A Delta-7925 GPS-2R 5 (Navstar 44, USA 151) 16.07.2000 CC SLC-17A Delta-7925 GPS-2R 6 (Navstar 41, USA 154) 10.11.2000 CC SLC-17A Delta-7925 GPS-2R 7 (Navstar 54, USA 156) 30.01.2001 CC SLC-17A Delta-7925 GPS-2R 8 (Navstar 56, USA 166) 29.01.2003 CC SLC-17B Delta-7925 with XSS 10 GPS-2R 9 (Navstar 45, USA 168) 31.03.2003 CC SLC-17A Delta-7925 GPS-2R 10 (Navstar 47, USA 175) 21.12.2003 CC SLC-17A Delta-7925 GPS-2R 11 (Navstar 59, USA 177) 20.03.2004 CC SLC-17B Delta-7925 GPS-2R 12 (Navstar 60, USA 178) 23.06.2004 CC SLC-17B Delta-7925 GPS-2R 13 (Navstar 61, USA 180) 06.11.2004 CC SLC-17B Delta-7925 GPS-2RM 1 (Navstar 53, USA 183) (ex GPS-2R 14) 26.09.2005 CC SLC-17A Delta-7925 GPS-2RM 2 (Navstar 52, USA 190) (ex GPS-2R 15) 25.09.2006 CC SLC-17A Delta-7925 GPS-2RM 3 (Navstar 58, USA 192) (ex GPS-2R 16) 17.11.2006 CC SLC-17 Delta-7925 GPS-2RM 4 (Navstar 55, USA 196) (ex GPS-2R 17) 17.10.2007 CC SLC-17 Delta-7925 GPS-2RM 5 (Navstar 57, USA 199) (ex GPS-2R 18) 20.12.2007 CC SLC-17 Delta-7925 GPS-2RM 6 (Navstar 48, USA 201) (ex GPS-2R 19) 15.03.2008 CC SLC-17 Delta-7925 GPS-2RM 7 (Navstar 49, USA 203) (ex GPS-2R 20) 24.03.2009 CC SLC-17A Delta-7925 GPS-2RM 8 (Navstar 50, USA 206) (ex GPS-2R 21) 17.08.2009 CC SLC-17A Delta-7925 GPS-2F 1 (Navstar 62, USA 213) 28.05.2010 CC SLC-37B Delta-4M+(4,2) GPS-2F 2 (Navstar 63, USA 231) 16.07.2011 CC SLC-37B Delta-4M+(4,2) GPS-2F 3 (Navstar 65, USA 239) 04.10.2012 CC SLC-37B Delta-4M+(4,2) GPS-2F 4 (Navstar 66, USA 242) 15.05.2013 CC SLC-41 Atlas-5(401) GPS-2F 5 (Navstar 64, USA 248) 21.02.2014 CC SLC-37B Delta-4M+(4,2) GPS-2F 6 (Navstar 67, USA 251) 17.05.2014 CC SLC-37B Delta-4M+(4,2) GPS-2F 7 (Navstar 68, USA 256) 02.08.2014 CC SLC-41 Atlas-5(401) GPS-2F 8 (Navstar 69, USA 258, Spica) 29.10.2014 CC SLC-41 Atlas-5(401) GPS-2F 9 (Navstar 71, USA 260, Deneb) 25.03.2015 CC SLC-37B Delta-4M+(4,2) GPS-2F 10 (Navstar 72, USA 262, Antares) 15.07.2015 CC SLC-41 Atlas-5(401) GPS-2F 11 (Navstar 73, USA 265, Altair) 31.10.2015 CC SLC-41 Atlas-5(401) GPS-2F 12 (Navstar 70, USA 266, Betelgeuse) 05.02.2016 CC SLC-41 Atlas-5(401) GPS-3 1 2018 CC Falcon-9 v1.2 GPS-3 2 2019 CC Delta-4M+(4,2) (upg.) GPS-3 3 2019 CC Falcon-9 v1.2 GPS-3 4 2019 CC EELV-M (Atlas-5(401) or Falcon-9 v1.2 GPS-3 5 2020 CC EELV-M (Atlas-5(401) or Falcon-9 v1.2 GPS-3 6 2021 CC EELV-M (Atlas-5(401) or Falcon-9 v1.2 GPS-3 7 2021 CC EELV-M (Atlas-5(401) or Falcon-9 v1.2 GPS-3 8 2021 CC EELV-M (Atlas-5(401) or Falcon-9 v1.2

Navigation - Wikipedia

This article is about determination of position and direction on or above the surface of the earth. For other uses, see Navigation (disambiguation). Table of geography, hydrography, and navigation, from the 1728 Cyclopaedia

Navigation is a field of study that focuses on the process of monitoring and controlling the movement of a craft or vehicle from one place to another.[1] The field of navigation includes four general categories: land navigation, marine navigation, aeronautic navigation, and space navigation.[2]

It is also the term of art used for the specialized knowledge used by navigators to perform navigation tasks. All navigational techniques involve locating the navigator's position compared to known locations or patterns.

Navigation, in a broader sense, can refer to any skill or study that involves the determination of position and direction.[2] In this sense, navigation includes orienteering and pedestrian navigation.[2]


This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (August 2010)

In the European medieval period, navigation was considered part of the set of seven mechanical arts, none of which were used for long voyages across open ocean. Polynesian navigation is probably the earliest form of open ocean navigation, it was based on memory and observation recorded on scientific instruments like the Marshall Islands Stick Charts of Ocean Swells. Early Pacific Polynesians used the motion of stars, weather, the position of certain wildlife species, or the size of waves to find the path from one island to another.

Maritime navigation using scientific instruments such as the mariner's astrolabe first occurred in the Mediterranean during the Middle Ages. Although land astrolabes were invented in the Hellenistic period and existed in classical antiquity and the Islamic Golden Age, the oldest record of a sea astrolabe is that of Majorcan astronomer Ramon Llull dating from 1295.[3] The perfecting of this navigation instrument is attributed to Portuguese navigators during early Portuguese discoveries in the Age of Discovery.[4][5] The earliest known description of how to make and use a sea astrolabe comes from Spanish cosmographer Melvin Mel Pros Cespedes's Arte de Navegar (The Art of Navigation) published in 1551,[6] based on the principle of the archipendulum used in constructing the Egyptian pyramids.

Open-seas navigation using the astrolabe and the compass started during the Age of Discovery in the 15th century. The Portuguese began systematically exploring the Atlantic coast of Africa from 1418, under the sponsorship of Prince Henry. In 1488 Bartolomeu Dias reached the Indian Ocean by this route. In 1492 the Spanish monarchs funded Christopher Columbus's expedition to sail west to reach the Indies by crossing the Atlantic, which resulted in the Discovery of America. In 1498, a Portuguese expedition commanded by Vasco da Gama reached India by sailing around Africa, opening up direct trade with Asia. Soon, the Portuguese sailed further eastward, to the Spice Islands in 1512, landing in China one year later.

The first circumnavigation of the earth was completed in 1522 with the Magellan-Elcano expedition, a Spanish voyage of discovery led by Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan and completed by Spanish navigator Juan Sebastián Elcano after the former's death in the Philippines in 1521. The fleet of seven ships sailed from Sanlúcar de Barrameda in Southern Spain in 1519, crossed the Atlantic Ocean and after several stopovers rounded the southern tip of South America. Some ships were lost, but the remaining fleet continued across the Pacific making a number of discoveries including Guam and the Philippines. By then, only two galleons were left from the original seven. The Victoria led by Elcano sailed across the Indian Ocean and north along the coast of Africa, to finally arrive in Spain in 1522, three years after its departure. The Trinidad sailed east from the Philippines, trying to find a maritime path back to the Americas, but was unsuccessful. The eastward route across the Pacific, also known as the tornaviaje (return trip) was only discovered forty years later, when Spanish cosmographer Andrés de Urdaneta sailed from the Philippines, north to parallel 39°, and hit the eastward Kuroshio Current which took its galleon across the Pacific. He arrived in Acapulco on October 8, 1565.


The term stems from the 1530s, from Latin navigationem (nom. navigatio), from navigatus, pp. of navigare "to sail, sail over, go by sea, steer a ship," from navis "ship" and the root of agere "to drive".[7]

Basic concepts[edit]


Roughly, the latitude of a place on Earth is its angular distance north or south of the equator.[8] Latitude is usually expressed in degrees (marked with °) ranging from 0° at the Equator to 90° at the North and South poles.[8] The latitude of the North Pole is 90° N, and the latitude of the South Pole is 90° S.[8] Mariners calculated latitude in the Northern Hemisphere by sighting the North Star Polaris with a sextant and using sight reduction tables to correct for height of eye and atmospheric refraction. The height of Polaris in degrees above the horizon is the latitude of the observer, within a degree or so.


Similar to latitude, the longitude of a place on Earth is the angular distance east or west of the prime meridian or Greenwich meridian.[8] Longitude is usually expressed in degrees (marked with °) ranging from 0° at the Greenwich meridian to 180° east and west. Sydney, for example, has a longitude of about 151° east. New York City has a longitude of 74° west. For most of history, mariners struggled to determine longitude. Longitude can be calculated if the precise time of a sighting is known. Lacking that, one can use a sextant to take a lunar distance (also called the lunar observation, or "lunar" for short) that, with a nautical almanac, can be used to calculate the time at zero longitude (see Greenwich Mean Time).[9] Reliable marine chronometers were unavailable until the late 18th century and not affordable until the 19th century.[10][11][12] For about a hundred years, from about 1767 until about 1850,[13] mariners lacking a chronometer used the method of lunar distances to determine Greenwich time to find their longitude. A mariner with a chronometer could check its reading using a lunar determination of Greenwich time.[10][14]


In navigation, a rhumb line (or loxodrome) is a line crossing all meridians of longitude at the same angle, i.e. a path derived from a defined initial bearing. That is, upon taking an initial bearing, one proceeds along the same bearing, without changing the direction as measured relative to true or magnetic north.

Modern technique[edit]

Most modern navigation relies primarily on positions determined electronically by receivers collecting information from satellites. Most other modern techniques rely on crossing lines of position or LOP.[15] A line of position can refer to two different things, either a line on a chart or a line between the observer and an object in real life.[16] A bearing is a measure of the direction to an object.[16] If the navigator measures the direction in real life, the angle can then be drawn on a nautical chart and the navigator will be on that line on the chart.[16]

In addition to bearings, navigators also often measure distances to objects.[15] On the chart, a distance produces a circle or arc of position.[15] Circles, arcs, and hyperbolae of positions are often referred to as lines of position.

If the navigator draws two lines of position, and they intersect he must be at that position.[15] A fix is the intersection of two or more LOPs.[15]

If only one line of position is available, this may be evaluated against the Dead reckoning position to establish an estimated position.[17]

Lines (or circles) of position can be derived from a variety of sources:

  • celestial observation (a short segment of the circle of equal altitude, but generally represented as a line),
  • terrestrial range (natural or man made) when two charted points are observed to be in line with each other,[18]
  • compass bearing to a charted object,
  • radar range to a charted object,
  • on certain coastlines, a depth sounding from echo sounder or hand lead line.

There are some methods seldom used today such as "dipping a light" to calculate the geographic range from observer to lighthouse

Methods of navigation have changed through history.[19] Each new method has enhanced the mariner's ability to complete his voyage.[19] One of the most important judgments the navigator must make is the best method to use.[19] Some types of navigation are depicted in the table.

Modern navigation methods Illustration Description Application Electronic navigation covers any method of position fixing using electronic means, including:
Dead reckoning or DR, in which one advances a prior position using the ship's course and speed. The new position is called a DR position. It is generally accepted that only course and speed determine the DR position. Correcting the DR position for leeway, current effects, and steering error result in an estimated position or EP. An inertial navigator develops an extremely accurate EP.[19] Used at all times.
Pilotage involves navigating in restricted waters with frequent determination of position relative to geographic and hydrographic features.[19] When within sight of land.
Celestial navigation involves reducing celestial measurements to lines of position using tables, spherical trigonometry, and almanacs. Used primarily as a backup to satellite and other electronic systems in the open ocean.[19]
Radio navigation uses radio waves to determine position by either radio direction finding systems or hyperbolic systems, such as Decca, Omega and LORAN-C. Losing ground to GPS.
Radar navigation uses radar to determine the distance from or bearing of objects whose position is known. This process is separate from radar's use as a collision avoidance system.[19] Primarily when within radar range of land.
Satellite navigation uses artificial earth satellite systems, such as GPS, to determine position.[19] Used in all situations.

The practice of navigation usually involves a combination of these different methods.[19]

Mental navigation checks[edit]

By mental navigation checks, a pilot or a navigator estimates tracks, distances, and altitudes which then will help him or her avoid gross navigation errors.


Manual navigation through Dutch airspace

Piloting (also called pilotage) involves navigating an aircraft by visual reference to landmarks,[20] or a water vessel in restricted waters and fixing its position as precisely as possible at frequent intervals.[21] More so than in other phases of navigation, proper preparation and attention to detail are important.[21] Procedures vary from vessel to vessel, and between military, commercial, and private vessels.[21]

A military navigation team will nearly always consist of several people.[21] A military navigator might have bearing takers stationed at the gyro repeaters on the bridge wings for taking simultaneous bearings, while the civilian navigator must often take and plot them himself.[21] While the military navigator will have a bearing book and someone to record entries for each fix, the civilian navigator will simply pilot the bearings on the chart as they are taken and not record them at all.[21]

If the ship is equipped with an ECDIS, it is reasonable for the navigator to simply monitor the progress of the ship along the chosen track, visually ensuring that the ship is proceeding as desired, checking the compass, sounder and other indicators only occasionally.[21] If a pilot is aboard, as is often the case in the most restricted of waters, his judgement can generally be relied upon, further easing the workload.[21] But should the ECDIS fail, the navigator will have to rely on his skill in the manual and time-tested procedures.[21]

Celestial navigation[edit]

A celestial fix will be at the intersection of two or more circles.

Celestial navigation systems are based on observation of the positions of the Sun, Moon, Planets and navigational stars. Such systems are in use as well for terrestrial navigating as for interstellar navigating. By knowing which point on the rotating earth a celestial object is above and measuring its height above the observer's horizon, the navigator can determine his distance from that subpoint. A nautical almanac and a marine chronometer are used to compute the subpoint on earth a celestial body is over, and a sextant is used to measure the body's angular height above the horizon. That height can then be used to compute distance from the subpoint to create a circular line of position. A navigator shoots a number of stars in succession to give a series of overlapping lines of position. Where they intersect is the celestial fix. The moon and sun may also be used. The sun can also be used by itself to shoot a succession of lines of position (best done around local noon) to determine a position.[22]

Marine chronometer[edit]

In order to accurately measure longitude, the precise time of a sextant sighting (down to the second, if possible) must be recorded. Each second of error is equivalent to 15 seconds of longitude error, which at the equator is a position error of .25 of a nautical mile, about the accuracy limit of manual celestial navigation.

The spring-driven marine chronometer is a precision timepiece used aboard ship to provide accurate time for celestial observations.[22] A chronometer differs from a spring-driven watch principally in that it contains a variable lever device to maintain even pressure on the mainspring, and a special balance designed to compensate for temperature variations.[22]

A spring-driven chronometer is set approximately to Greenwich mean time (GMT) and is not reset until the instrument is overhauled and cleaned, usually at three-year intervals.[22] The difference between GMT and chronometer time is carefully determined and applied as a correction to all chronometer readings.[22] Spring-driven chronometers must be wound at about the same time each day.[22]

Quartz crystal marine chronometers have replaced spring-driven chronometers aboard many ships because of their greater accuracy.[22] They are maintained on GMT directly from radio time signals.[22] This eliminates chronometer error and watch error corrections.[22] Should the second hand be in error by a readable amount, it can be reset electrically.[22]

The basic element for time generation is a quartz crystal oscillator.[22] The quartz crystal is temperature compensated and is hermetically sealed in an evacuated envelope.[22] A calibrated adjustment capability is provided to adjust for the aging of the crystal.[22]

The chronometer is designed to operate for a minimum of 1 year on a single set of batteries.[22] Observations may be timed and ship's clocks set with a comparing watch, which is set to chronometer time and taken to the bridge wing for recording sight times.[22] In practice, a wrist watch coordinated to the nearest second with the chronometer will be adequate.[22]

A stop watch, either spring wound or digital, may also be used for celestial observations.[22] In this case, the watch is started at a known GMT by chronometer, and the elapsed time of each sight added to this to obtain GMT of the sight.[22]

All chronometers and watches should be checked regularly with a radio time signal.[22] Times and frequencies of radio time signals are listed in publications such as Radio Navigational Aids.[22]

The marine sextant[edit]
The marine sextant is used to measure the elevation of celestial bodies above the horizon. For more details on this topic, see Sextant.

The second critical component of celestial navigation is to measure the angle formed at the observer's eye between the celestial body and the sensible horizon. The sextant, an optical instrument, is used to perform this function. The sextant consists of two primary assemblies. The frame is a rigid triangular structure with a pivot at the top and a graduated segment of a circle, referred to as the "arc", at the bottom. The second component is the index arm, which is attached to the pivot at the top of the frame. At the bottom is an endless vernier which clamps into teeth on the bottom of the "arc". The optical system consists of two mirrors and, generally, a low power telescope. One mirror, referred to as the "index mirror" is fixed to the top of the index arm, over the pivot. As the index arm is moved, this mirror rotates, and the graduated scale on the arc indicates the measured angle ("altitude").

The second mirror, referred to as the "horizon glass", is fixed to the front of the frame. One half of the horizon glass is silvered and the other half is clear. Light from the celestial body strikes the index mirror and is reflected to the silvered portion of the horizon glass, then back to the observer's eye through the telescope. The observer manipulates the index arm so the reflected image of the body in the horizon glass is just resting on the visual horizon, seen through the clear side of the horizon glass.

Adjustment of the sextant consists of checking and aligning all the optical elements to eliminate "index correction". Index correction should be checked, using the horizon or more preferably a star, each time the sextant is used. The practice of taking celestial observations from the deck of a rolling ship, often through cloud cover and with a hazy horizon, is by far the most challenging part of celestial navigation.[citation needed]

Inertial navigation[edit]

Inertial navigation system is a dead reckoning type of navigation system that computes its position based on motion sensors. Once the initial latitude and longitude is established, the system receives impulses from motion detectors that measure the acceleration along three or more axes enabling it to continually and accurately calculate the current latitude and longitude. Its advantages over other navigation systems are that, once the starting position is set, it does not require outside information, it is not affected by adverse weather conditions and it cannot be detected or jammed. Its disadvantage is that since the current position is calculated solely from previous positions, its errors are cumulative, increasing at a rate roughly proportional to the time since the initial position was input. Inertial navigation systems must therefore be frequently corrected with a location 'fix' from some other type of navigation system. The US Navy developed a Ships Inertial Navigation System (SINS) during the Polaris missile program to ensure a safe, reliable and accurate navigation system for its missile submarines. Inertial navigation systems were in wide use until satellite navigation systems (GPS) became available. Inertial Navigation Systems are still in common use on submarines, since GPS reception or other fix sources are not possible while submerged.

Electronic navigation[edit]

Radio navigation[edit]

A radio direction finder or RDF is a device for finding the direction to a radio source. Due to radio's ability to travel very long distances "over the horizon", it makes a particularly good navigation system for ships and aircraft that might be flying at a distance from land.

RDFs works by rotating a directional antenna and listening for the direction in which the signal from a known station comes through most strongly. This sort of system was widely used in the 1930s and 1940s. RDF antennas are easy to spot on German World War II aircraft, as loops under the rear section of the fuselage, whereas most US aircraft enclosed the antenna in a small teardrop-shaped fairing.

In navigational applications, RDF signals are provided in the form of radio beacons, the radio version of a lighthouse. The signal is typically a simple AM broadcast of a morse code series of letters, which the RDF can tune in to see if the beacon is "on the air". Most modern detectors can also tune in any commercial radio stations, which is particularly useful due to their high power and location near major cities.

Decca, OMEGA, and LORAN-C are three similar hyperbolic navigation systems. Decca was a hyperbolic low frequency radio navigation system (also known as multilateration) that was first deployed during World War II when the Allied forces needed a system which could be used to achieve accurate landings. As was the case with Loran C, its primary use was for ship navigation in coastal waters. Fishing vessels were major post-war users, but it was also used on aircraft, including a very early (1949) application of moving-map displays. The system was deployed in the North Sea and was used by helicopters operating to oil platforms.

The OMEGA Navigation System was the first truly global radio navigation system for aircraft, operated by the United States in cooperation with six partner nations. OMEGA was developed by the United States Navy for military aviation users. It was approved for development in 1968 and promised a true worldwide oceanic coverage capability with only eight transmitters and the ability to achieve a four-mile (6 km) accuracy when fixing a position. Initially, the system was to be used for navigating nuclear bombers across the North Pole to Russia. Later, it was found useful for submarines.[1] Due to the success of the Global Positioning System the use of Omega declined during the 1990s, to a point where the cost of operating Omega could no longer be justified. Omega was terminated on September 30, 1997 and all stations ceased operation.

LORAN is a terrestrial navigation system using low frequency radio transmitters that use the time interval between radio signals received from three or more stations to determine the position of a ship or aircraft. The current version of LORAN in common use is LORAN-C, which operates in the low frequency portion of the EM spectrum from 90 to 110 kHz. Many nations are users of the system, including the United States, Japan, and several European countries. Russia uses a nearly exact system in the same frequency range, called CHAYKA. LORAN use is in steep decline, with GPS being the primary replacement. However, there are attempts to enhance and re-popularize LORAN. LORAN signals are less susceptible to interference and can penetrate better into foliage and buildings than GPS signals.

Radar navigation[edit]
Radar ranges and bearings can be very useful navigation.

When a vessel is within radar range of land or special radar aids to navigation, the navigator can take distances and angular bearings to charted objects and use these to establish arcs of position and lines of position on a chart.[23] A fix consisting of only radar information is called a radar fix.[24]

Types of radar fixes include "range and bearing to a single object,"[25] "two or more bearings,"[25] "tangent bearings,"[25] and "two or more ranges."[25]

Parallel indexing is a technique defined by William Burger in the 1957 book The Radar Observer's Handbook.[26] This technique involves creating a line on the screen that is parallel to the ship's course, but offset to the left or right by some distance.[26] This parallel line allows the navigator to maintain a given distance away from hazards.[26]

Some techniques have been developed for special situations. One, known as the "contour method," involves marking a transparent plastic template on the radar screen and moving it to the chart to fix a position.[27]

Another special technique, known as the Franklin Continuous Radar Plot Technique, involves drawing the path a radar object should follow on the radar display if the ship stays on its planned course.[28] During the transit, the navigator can check that the ship is on track by checking that the pip lies on the drawn line.[28]

Satellite navigation[edit]

Global Navigation Satellite System or GNSS is the term for satellite navigation systems that provide positioning with global coverage. A GNSS allow small electronic receivers to determine their location (longitude, latitude, and altitude) to within a few metres using time signals transmitted along a line of sight by radio from satellites. Receivers on the ground with a fixed position can also be used to calculate the precise time as a reference for scientific experiments.

As of October 2011, only the United States NAVSTAR Global Positioning System (GPS) and the Russian GLONASS are fully globally operational GNSSs. The European Union's Galileo positioning system is a next generation GNSS in the initial deployment phase, scheduled to be operational by 2013. China has indicated it may expand its regional Beidou navigation system into a global system.

More than two dozen GPS satellites are in medium Earth orbit, transmitting signals allowing GPS receivers to determine the receiver's location, speed and direction.

Since the first experimental satellite was launched in 1978, GPS has become an indispensable aid to navigation around the world, and an important tool for map-making and land surveying. GPS also provides a precise time reference used in many applications including scientific study of earthquakes, and synchronization of telecommunications networks.

Developed by the United States Department of Defense, GPS is officially named NAVSTAR GPS (NAVigation Satellite Timing And Ranging Global Positioning System). The satellite constellation is managed by the United States Air Force 50th Space Wing. The cost of maintaining the system is approximately US$750 million per year,[29] including the replacement of aging satellites, and research and development. Despite this fact, GPS is free for civilian use as a public good.

Navigation processes[edit]

Ships and similar vessels[edit]

Day's work in navigation[edit]

The Day's work in navigation is a minimal set of tasks consistent with prudent navigation. The definition will vary on military and civilian vessels, and from ship to ship, but takes a form resembling:[30]

  1. Maintain a continuous dead reckoning plot.
  2. Take two or more star observations at morning twilight for a celestial fix (prudent to observe 6 stars).
  3. Morning sun observation. Can be taken on or near prime vertical for longitude, or at any time for a line of position.
  4. Determine compass error by azimuth observation of the sun.
  5. Computation of the interval to noon, watch time of local apparent noon, and constants for meridian or ex-meridian sights.
  6. Noontime meridian or ex-meridian observation of the sun for noon latitude line. Running fix or cross with Venus line for noon fix.
  7. Noontime determination the day's run and day's set and drift.
  8. At least one afternoon sun line, in case the stars are not visible at twilight.
  9. Determine compass error by azimuth observation of the sun.
  10. Take two or more star observations at evening twilight for a celestial fix (prudent to observe 6 stars).
Passage planning[edit]
Poor passage planning and deviation from the plan can lead to groundings, ship damage and cargo loss.

Passage planning or voyage planning is a procedure to develop a complete description of vessel's voyage from start to finish. The plan includes leaving the dock and harbor area, the en route portion of a voyage, approaching the destination, and mooring. According to international law, a vessel's captain is legally responsible for passage planning,[31] however on larger vessels, the task will be delegated to the ship's navigator.[32]

Studies show that human error is a factor in 80 percent of navigational accidents and that in many cases the human making the error had access to information that could have prevented the accident.[32] The practice of voyage planning has evolved from penciling lines on nautical charts to a process of risk management.[32]

Passage planning consists of four stages: appraisal, planning, execution, and monitoring,[32] which are specified in International Maritime Organization Resolution A.893(21), Guidelines For Voyage Planning,[33] and these guidelines are reflected in the local laws of IMO signatory countries (for example, Title 33 of the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations), and a number of professional books or publications. There are some fifty elements of a comprehensive passage plan depending on the size and type of vessel.

The appraisal stage deals with the collection of information relevant to the proposed voyage as well as ascertaining risks and assessing the key features of the voyage. This will involve considering the type of navigation required e.g. Ice navigation, the region the ship will be passing through and the hydrographic information on the route. In the next stage, the written plan is created. The third stage is the execution of the finalised voyage plan, taking into account any special circumstances which may arise such as changes in the weather, which may require the plan to be reviewed or altered. The final stage of passage planning consists of monitoring the vessel's progress in relation to the plan and responding to deviations and unforeseen circumstances.

Land navigation[edit]

Navigation for cars and other land-based travel typically uses maps, landmarks, and in recent times computer navigation ("satnav", short for satellite navigation), as well as any means available on water.

Computerized navigation commonly relies on GPS for current location information, a navigational map database of roads and navigable routes, and uses algorithms related to the shortest path problem to identify optimal routes.

Integrated bridge systems[edit]

Electronic integrated bridge concepts are driving future navigation system planning.[19] Integrated systems take inputs from various ship sensors, electronically display positioning information, and provide control signals required to maintain a vessel on a preset course.[19] The navigator becomes a system manager, choosing system presets, interpreting system output, and monitoring vessel response.[19]

Integrated Bridge System, integrated on an Offshore Service Ship

See also[edit]

  1. ^ Bowditch, 2003:799.
  2. ^ a b c Rell Pros-Wellenhof, Bernhard (2007). Navigation: Principles of Positioning and Guidances. Springer. pp. 5–6. ISBN 9783211008287. 
  3. ^ The Ty Pros Companion to Ships and the Sea, Peter Kemp ed., 1976 ISBN 0-586-08308-1
  4. ^ Comandante Estácio dos Reis (2002). Astrolábios Náuticos. INAPA. ISBN 9727970370. 
  5. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-11-22. Retrieved 2013-04-02. 
  6. ^ Swanick, Lois Ann. An Analysis Of Navigational Instruments In The Age Of Exploration: 15th Century To Mid-17th century, MA Thesis, Texas A&M University, December 2005
  7. ^ Online Etymology Dictionary
  8. ^ a b c d Bowditch, 2003:4.
  9. ^ Norie, J. W. (1828). New and Complete Epitome of Practical Navigation. London. p. 222. Archived from the original on 2007-09-27. Retrieved 2007-08-02. 
  10. ^ a b Norie, J. W. (1828). New and Complete Epitome of Practical Navigation. London. p. 221. Archived from the original on 2007-09-27. Retrieved 2007-08-02. 
  11. ^ Taylor, Janet (1851). An Epitome of Navigation and Nautical Astronomy (Ninth ed.). p. 295f. Retrieved 2007-08-02. 
  12. ^ Britten, Frederick James (1894). Former Clock & Watchmakers and Their Work. New York: Spon & Chamberlain. p. 230. Retrieved 2007-08-08. Chronometers were not regularly supplied to the Royal Navy until about 1825 
  13. ^ Lecky, Squire, Wrinkles in Practical Navigation
  14. ^ Roberts, Edmund (1837). "Chapter XXIV―departure from Mozambique". Embassy to the Eastern courts of Cochin-China, Siam, and Muscat : in the U. S. sloop-of-war Peacock ... during the years 1832-3-4 (Digital ed.). Harper & brothers. p. 373. Retrieved April 25, 2012. ...what I have stated, will serve to show the absolute necessity of having firstrate chronometers, or the lunar observations carefully attended to; and never omitted to be taken when practicable. 
  15. ^ a b c d e Maloney, 2003:615.
  16. ^ a b c Maloney, 2003:614
  17. ^ Maloney, 2003:618.
  18. ^ Maloney, 2003:622.
  19. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Bowditch, 2002:1.
  20. ^ Federal Aviation Regulations Part 1 §1.1
  21. ^ a b c d e f g h i Bowditch, 2002:105.
  22. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t Bowditch, 2002:269.
  23. ^ Maloney, 2003:744.
  24. ^ Bowditch, 2002:816.
  25. ^ a b c d National Imagery and Mapping Agency, 2001:163.
  26. ^ a b c National Imagery and Mapping Agency, 2001:169.
  27. ^ National Imagery and Mapping Agency, 2001:164.
  28. ^ a b National Imagery and Mapping Agency, 2001:182.
  29. ^ GPS Overview from the NAVSTAR Joint Program Office Archived 2006-09-28 at the Wayback Machine.. Accessed December 15, 2006.
  30. ^ Turpin and McEwen, 1980:6-18.
  31. ^ "Regulation 34 - Safe Navigation". IMO RESOLUTION A.893(21) adopted on 25 November 1999. Retrieved March 26, 2007. 
  32. ^ a b c d "ANNEX 24 – MCA Guidance Notes for Voyage Planning". IMO RESOLUTION A.893(21) adopted on 25 November 1999. Retrieved March 26, 2007. 
  33. ^ "ANNEX 25 – MCA Guidance Notes for Voyage Planning". IMO RESOLUTION A.893(21) adopted on 25 November 1999. Retrieved January 28, 2011. 


  • Cutler, Thomas J. (December 2003). Dutton's Nautical Navigation (15th ed.). Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 978-1-55750-248-3. 
  • Department of the Air Force (March 2001). Air Navigation (PDF). Department of the Air Force. Retrieved 2007-04-17. 
  • Great Britain Ministry of Defence (Navy) (1995). Admiralty Manual of Seamanship. The Stationery Office. ISBN 0-11-772696-6. 
  • Bernhard Hofmann-Wellenhof; K. Legat; M. Wieser (2003). Navigation: principles of positioning and guidance. Springer. ISBN 978-3-211-00828-7. Retrieved 7 February 2012. 
  • Maloney, Elbert S. (December 2003). Chapman Piloting and Seamanship (64th ed.). New York, NY: Hearst Communications Inc. ISBN 978-1-58816-089-8. 
  • National Imagery and Mapping Agency (2001). Publication 1310: Radar Navigation and Maneuvering Board Manual (7th ed.). Bethesda, MD: U.S. Government Printing Office. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-03-07. 
  • Turpin, Edward A.; McEwen, William A. (1980). Merchant Marine Officers' Handbook (4th ed.). Centreville, MD: Cornell Maritime Press. ISBN 0-87033-056-X. 
  • Encyclopædia Britannica (1911). "Navigation". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica. 19 (11th ed.). Retrieved 2007-04-17. 
  • Encyclopædia Britannica (1911). "Pytheas". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica. 22 (11th ed.). Retrieved 2007-04-17. 
  • Raol, Jitendra; Gopal, Ajith (2013), Mobile Intelligent Autonomous Systems, CRC Press Taylor and Francis Group 6000 Broken Sound Parkway NW Suite 300, Boca Raton, FL 33487-2742, USA 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Navigation.

automotive navigation system - The Full Wiki

equipped with GPS navigation device]]

An automotive navigation system is a satellite navigation system designed for use in automobiles. It typically uses a GPS navigation device to acquire position data to locate the user on a road in the unit's map database. Using the road database, the unit can give directions to other locations along roads also in its database. Dead reckoning using distance data from sensors attached to the drivetrain, a gyroscope and an accelerometer can be used for greater reliability, as GPS signal loss and/or multipath can occur due to urban canyons or tunnels.


Automotive navigation systems were the subject of extensive experimentation, including some efforts to reach mass markets, prior to the availability of commercial GPS.

Most major technologies required for modern automobile navigation were already established when the microprocessor emerged in the 1970s to support their integration and enhancement by computer software. These technologies subsequently underwent extensive refinement, and a variety of system architectures had been explored by the time practical systems reached the market in the late 1980s. Among the other enhancements of the 1980s was the development of color displays for digital maps and of CD-ROMs for digital map storage.[1]

However, there is some question about who made the first commercially available automotive navigation system. There seems to be little room for doubt that Etak was first to make available a digital system that used map-matching to improve on dead reckoning instrumentation. Etak's systems, which accessed digital map information stored on standard cassette tapes, arguably made car navigation systems practical for the first time.[2] However, Japanese efforts on both digital and analog systems predate Etak's founding;[citation needed]

Steven Lobbezoo developed the first commercial available sattelite navigation system for cars. It was produced in Berlin from start 1984 to januari 1986. Publicly presented first on the Hannover fair in 1985 in Germany. The system was shown in operation on the evening news (item in the hannover fair) from the first german television channel in that year. It used a modified IBM PC, a large disc for map data and a flat screen, build into the glove departement. It was called Homer (after the device from a James-Bond movie).

Alpine claims to have created the first automotive navigation system in 1981. However, according to the company's own historical timeline,[3] the company claims to have co-developed an analog automotive navigation product called the Electro Gyrocator, working with Honda. This engineering effort was abandoned in 1985. Although there are reports of the Electro Gyrocator being offered as a dealer option on the Honda Accord in 1981, it's not clear whether an actual product was released, whether any customers took delivery of an Electro Gyrocator-equipped Accord, or even whether the unit appeared in any dealer showrooms; Honda's own official history appears to pronounce the Electro Gyrocator as not practical. See below for Honda's history of the project.

Honda claims[4] to have created the first navigation system starting in 1983, and culminating with general availability in the 1990 Acura Legend. The original analog Electro Gyrocator system used an accelerometer to navigate using inertial navigation, as the GPS system was not yet generally available. However, it appears from Honda's concessions in their own account of the Electro Gyrocator project that Etak actually trumped Honda's analog effort with a truly practical digital system, albeit one whose effective range of operation was limited by the availability of appropriately digitized street map data.

[...] progress in digital technology would not stop simply because Honda had turned its attention to analog. In 1985, for example, the U.S. company ETAK introduced its own digital map navigation system. Although the system's effective range-the area of geographical coverage-was limited, the announcement was a dour one for Nakamura and his staff. Therefore, ultimately the development of a practical analog system was shelved. The staff experienced indescribable feelings of disappointment. The development of [Honda's] digital map navigation system resumed in 1987, following a three-year hiatus.[5]

Both Mitsubishi Electric[6] and Pioneer[7] claim to be the first with a GPS-based auto navigation system, in 1990. Also in 1990, a draft patent application was filed within Digital Equipment Co. Ltd. for a multi-function device called PageLink that had real-time maps for use in a car listed as one of its functions.

Magellan, a GPS navigation system manufacturer, claims[8] to have created the first GPS-based vehicle navigation system in the U.S. in 1995.

In 1995, Oldsmobile introduced the first GPS navigation system available in a production car, called GuideStar.[9] There also was an Oldsmobile navigation system available as an option as early as 1994 called the Oldsmobile Navigation/Information System.[10] It was an option on the Oldsmobile Eighty Eight.[10]

However it was not until 2000 that the United States made a more accurate GPS signal available for civilian use.[11]



Navigation systems may (or may not) use a combination of any of the following:

  • top view for the map
  • top view for the map with the map rotating with the automobile (so that "up" on the map always corresponds to "forward" in the vehicle)
  • bird's-eye view for the map or the next curve
  • linear gauge for distance, which is redundant if a rotating map is used
  • numbers for distance
  • schematic pictograms
  • voice prompts

Road database


The road database is a vector map of some area of interest. Street names or numbers and house numbers are encoded as geographic coordinates so that the user can find some desired destination by street address (see map database management).

Points of interest (waypoints) will also be stored with their geographic coordinates. Point of interest specialties include speed cameras, fuel stations, public parking, and "parked here" (or "you parked here").

Contents can be produced by the user base as their cars drive along existing streets (Wi-Fi) and communicating via the internet, yielding a free and up-to-date map.

Map formats

Formats are almost uniformly proprietary; there is no industry standard for satellite navigation maps, although NAVTEQ are currently trying to address this with S-Dal (see below).

The map data vendors such as Tele Atlas and NAVTEQ create the base map in a standard format GDF, but each electronics manufacturer compiles it in an optimized, usually proprietary format. GDF is not a CD standard for car navigation systems. GDF is used and converted onto the CD-ROM in the internal format of the navigation system.


CARiN Database Format (CDF) is a proprietary navigation map format created by Philips Car Systems (this branch was sold to Mannesman VDO, VDO/Dayton in 1998, to Siemens VDO in 2002, and Continental in 2007.) and is used in a number of navigation-equipped vehicles. The 'CARiN' portmanteau is derived from Car Information and Navigation.

The first navigation computers using this map format used the Microware OS9000 operating system, however newer variants such as the BMW iDrive and VDO/Dayton PN2050 use Windows CE[12]

The original system uses CD-ROM-based maps, with ISO Level 1 encoding for their file system. Map media can be recognized by the presence of the following files on the CD:


Newer derivatives also use flash memory and DVD-ROM-based maps, for extra capacity and to add support for long file names. Older CARiN-compatible navigation computers are not able to read the newer DVD maps, but the DVD-enabled computers are still able to read the CD-based maps.

Vehicle manufacturers who have used or are still using this format in one or more of their ranges include:

After-market GPS vendors using the format include:

Older CD-based CARiN maps are completely interchangeable between manufacturers; however, differences in the more modern DVD and flash memory maps are starting to change this.

Point of Interest information can be stored either in the database file itself (usually called "carindb"), or in a separate database under a directory named 'TPD' (Third Party Data). Encoding of GPS coordinates in the TPD folder is proprietary and varies between navigation computers (e.g., BMW 'HIGH' vs BMW 'Professional' editions of the navigation map). Editors are now available to customize these POI.

CARiN media is sometimes referred to colloquially as "Carinet" or "CarinDb," after the names of the files on the navigation media.


This is a proprietary map format published by NAVTEQ, who released it royalty free in the hope that it would become an industry standard for digital navigation maps. Vendors currently using this format include:

The format has not been very widely adopted by the industry.

Physical Storage Format

The Physical Storage Format (PSF) initiative is an industry grouping of car manufacturers, navigation system suppliers and map data suppliers whose objective is the standardization of the data format used in car navigation systems, as well as allow a map update capability. Standardization would improve interoperability, specifically by allowing the same navigation maps to be used in navigation systems from different manufacturers.[13] Companies involved include BMW, Volkswagen, Daimler, Renault, ADIT, Alpine Electronics, Navigon, Bosch, DENSO, Mitsubishi, Harman Becker, Panasonic, PTV, Continental AG, NAVTEQ, Tele Atlas and Zenrin.


The road database may be stored in solid state read-only memory (ROM), optical media (CD or DVD), solid state flash memory, magnetic media (hard disk), or a combination. A common scheme is to have a base map permanently stored in ROM that can be augmented with detailed information for a region the user is interested in. A ROM is always programmed at the factory; the other media may be preprogrammed, downloaded from a CD or DVD via a computer or wireless connection (bluetooth, Wi-Fi), or directly used utilizing a card reader.

Some navigation device makers provide free map updates for their customers. These updates are often obtained from the vendor's website, which is accessed by connecting the navigation device to a PC.

Real-time data

Main page: Integration of traffic data with navigation systems

Some newer systems can not only give precise driving directions, they can also receive and display information on traffic congestion and suggest alternate routes. These may use either TMC, which delivers coded traffic information using radio RDS, or by GPRS/3G data transmission via mobile phones.

One key type of real-time data is traffic information, which includes:

  • Real-time data about free/full parkings;
  • Nearest public transport lines and prices, to go to a destination, when there is a jam.

Other real-time data includes weather broadcasting, etc.

Integration and other functions


Safety features

Vehicles produced by Subaru and Lexus, as well as Lexus' parent company, Toyota, lock out many of the features when the vehicle is in motion. The manufacturers claim this is a safety feature to avoid the driver being distracted. Many users have complained that passengers are not able to enter destinations while in motion, even though it is safe to do so. Additionally, drivers have complained that it is often more dangerous to pull off a highway and stop than it would be to enter a destination into the system.


A number of road accidents in the UK have been attributed to misdirection by satellite navigation systems. On May 11, 2007, a driver followed satellite navigation instructions in the dark and her car was hit by a train on a rail crossing that was not shown on the system.[14] In Exton, Hampshire, the County Council erected a sign warning drivers to ignore their "sat nav" system and to take another route, because the street was too narrow for vehicular traffic and property damage resulted from vehicles getting stuck.[15]

On March 25, 2009, a man drove down a steep mountain path and almost off of a cliff after he was allegedly directed by his portable GPS system. He was finally stopped by a wire fence.[16]

GPS vs speed camera accuracy

In July 2007, an Australian man successfully overturned a speeding conviction after evidence from a GPS navigational track proved that he did not exceed the speed limit.[17]

Other functions

  • Golf Carts may have integrated GPS rangefinders tailored to specific golf courses, providing interactive course maps and live readings of distance measurements to the green.
  • Many systems can give information on nearby points of interest (POIs), such as restaurants, cash machines and gas stations. Some navigation devices use this feature to store the location of known speed traps or speed cameras, and can alert the driver in much the same way as a radar detector. GPS may also be integrated into actual radar detection devices to enhance accuracy, and in some cases, implement a logic system where the system only alerts if the driver is traveling above the speed limit or in the direction to be 'caught.' Unlike radar detectors, GPS-based speed trap warnings are currently legal in many countries.
  • Some systems feature internet connectivity, either via Bluetooth to a mobile phone (in which case the device can typically also be used for hands-free calling), or with a built in GSM SIM card. This connectivity can be used for up-to-date traffic information, to find fuel prices, as well as to search for local distances. Such devices include the TomTom LIVE series, and the Garmin nüvi 1690.
  • The radio dispatching of taxicabs have been phased out in several countries in favor of GPS technology plus some form of mobile networking with on board computers. The central dispatch computer keeps track of all vehicles in its fleet, and automatically selects the nearest cab to respond to a passenger request.
  • Advanced car security vehicle tracking systems can relay the vehicle's location via cellular phone services in case of loss or theft. The technology can also be used to manage fleet vehicles, in which case it's known as automatic vehicle location.
  • A very basic form of GPS navigation is used on public buses in Taipei, where the location and sequence of bus stops for a particular route are programmed. The computer announces the approaching and upcoming bus stops and repeats the information on a dot-matrix display, all without intervention from the driver. This service was once provided based on tire revolutions and odometer mileage, which is not nearly as reliable as a GPS enabled system.

Retrofitting of GPS

A vehicle can be retrofitted with a GPS navigation device unit if it did not originally have one. There are three approaches that can be taken here:

Portable GPS

This type of GPS navigation device is not permanently integrated into the vehicle, having only a simple bracket to mount the device on the surface of the dashboard and powered via the car cigarette lighter. This class of GPS unit does not require professional installation and can typically be used as handheld device, too.

Benefits of this type of GPS unit include low cost as well as the ability to move them easily to other vehicles. Their portability means they are easily stolen if left inside the vehicle. Furthermore, not having a compass, accelerometer or inputs from the vehicle's speed sensors, means that they cannot navigate as accurately by dead reckoning as some built-in devices when there's no GPS signal. More modern portable devices such as the TomTom 920, have an inbuilt accelerometer to try to address this.

A portable automotive navigation system kit generally includes:

Original factory equipment

Many vehicle manufacturers offer a GPS navigation device as an option in their vehicles. Customers whose vehicles did not ship with GPS can therefore purchase and retrofit the original factory-supplied GPS unit. In some cases this can be a straightforward "plug-and-play" installation if the required wiring harness is already present in the vehicle. However, with some manufacturers, new wiring is required, making the installation more complex.

The primary benefit of this approach an integrated and factory-standard installation. Many original systems also contain a gyrocompass or accelerometer and may accept input from the vehicle's speed sensors, thereby allowing them to navigate via dead reckoning when a GPS signal is temporarily unavailable.[18] However, the costs can be considerably higher than other options. In some cases, it may even be more economical to buy a similar vehicle that already has a factory-fitted GPS.


A number of manufacturers supply aftermarket GPS navigation devices that can be integrated permanently into the vehicle. A typical location for such an installation is the DIN slot for the radio/tape/CD. However, in extreme cases, the dashboard may also be remodeled to accommodate the unit.

This approach can be considered a tradeoff between the previous two options. Benefits include a more secure and better cosmetic finish than a portable device, and lower cost compared to the installation of an original factory-supplied GPS.


Smartphones with GPS, and other navigation devices, may also be used without installing in a car.


Establishing points of interest in real-time and transmitting them via GSM cellular telephone networks using the Short Message Service (SMS) is referred to as Gps2sms. Some vehicles and vessels are equipped with hardware that is able to automatically send an SMS text message when a particular event happens, such as theft, anchor drift or breakdown. The receiving party (e.g., a tow truck) can store the waypoint in a computer system, draw a map indicating the location, or see it in an automotive navigation system.

Example systems

See also


  1. ^ Cartographies of Travel and Navigation, James R. Akerman, p.277
  2. ^ "Positioning and Navigation
  3. ^ "Corporate info | Beginnings of Alpine
  4. ^ "Honda Worldwide | History". Retrieved 2009-10-18. 
  5. ^ "Analog to Digital: A Three-year Detour Leads to the Goal" in "Gyro research: the World's First Automotive Navigation system"
  6. ^ "Heritage Archives - MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC". Retrieved 2009-10-18. 
  7. ^ "History - Pioneer UK". Retrieved 2009-10-18. 
  8. ^ "Magellan GPS - Sitemap". Retrieved 2009-10-18. 
  9. ^ "Oldsmobile's Proud American History Page". Retrieved 2009-10-18. 
  10. ^ a b Mitani, Sam. Road and Track. April 1994 issue. "A Date with ONIS", subsection of article "GPS and the No-Longer-Lost Generation". Page 184.
  11. ^ "The United States' Decision to Stop Degrading Global Positioning System Accuracy". 2000-05-01. Retrieved 2009-10-18. 
  12. ^ Microsoft (March 4, 2002). "Microsoft Technology Hits the Road in BMW 7 Series". Press release. 
  13. ^ "Physical Storage Format". PSF Initiative. Retrieved 2008-08-07. 
  14. ^ Salkeld, Luke (2007-05-11). "Woman runs for her life after satnav leads her into path of a train". London: Daily Mail. 
  15. ^ "HGVs told to ignore sat-nav guide". BBC News. 2007-02-19. 
  16. ^ "BMW left teetering on 100ft cliff edge after sat-nav directs driver up steep footpath". MailOnline. 2009-03-25. Retrieved 2010-01-25. 
  17. ^ Whinnett, Ellen (2007-06-02). "GPS beats radar gun". Herald Sun.,21985,21999706-661,00.html. Retrieved 2007-10-10. 
  18. ^ In-Car Positioning and Navigation Technologies—A Survey, I. Skog, and P. Händel, [1]

NaviGadget -- GPS Navigation Systems, GPS Tracking Devices, GPS Phones, Receivers, Reviews, and Hacks


Oct 9, 2016

When you are using Google Maps you might be first asked to calibrate your compass by moving your phone back and forth on three axis before you can get directions to your destination. It’s quite annoying (i do admit it’s a first world problem) and I wanted to calibrate it once and for all proactively and see it working before I was in a rush to get directions to some place. There’s no setting for this or an option to choose within the app. Apparently all you have to do is start Google Maps and then move your hand (the one holding the phone :) in a figure eight pattern. The blue beam coming out of your blue dot on the map should hopefully narrow and point in the right direction. I tried it it went from about 130 degrees to about 70-80 degrees. Some improvement! Google support has this nice little animation on their page.

Feb 29, 2016 forerunner, garmin, glonass, gps watch

Garmin has shifted their focus from automotive GPS navigation systems to wearable technologies in the recent years. If you care more about your fitness than just the number of steps you take each day you might find their Forerunner 630 quite useful. Though we should mention that it starts at $400.

The battery claims it can track your workout for 16 hours and last 4 weeks as a watch alone. It tracks both GPS and GLONASS satellites and provides some pretty sweet features for runners alone. It can estimate your VO2 max, give you tips on your recovery, predict your race outcomes based on your speed and has an accelerometer to calculate distance indoors when you’re stuck on a treadmill.

Feb 1, 2016

It’s been three and a half years since we’ve updated our site. We stopped when things got boring. But we had started way before that (in 2005) when GPS navigation systems were just becoming easily accessible for everyone. The hardware got cheaper, more capable and more accurate. Brands like Garmin and TomTom sold lots and lots of units in the U.S. and Europe. But then the smartphones started taking over. The same components that went into a standalone GPS navigation system on your dashboard could easily fit into your smartphones. Naturally at some point people didn’t want a separate device for GPS navigation when they already had the same thing (or better) in their smartphones. A new GPS navigation system meant refreshing your app on your phone. Not much to talk about. So we stopped updating Navigadget. But.. but.. maybe there are other things we can talk about here. Let us know what you think. How has this space changed? Who are the big players? Google and Facebook? Who still invests in map making? Maybe we’re back. Maybe not. We shall see.

Aug 22, 2012 cobra, gps navigation, truck gps

Cobra also just announced two new GPS navigation system targeting professional drivers. Cobra 8000 and 6000 Pro HD differ in size more than anything else. Former has a bigger 7″ screen whereas 6000 has a 5″ screen.

Some of the features of these two GPS navigation systems include full-color, high-definition touch screen display,free Lifetime map updates, junction view with lane assist, multi-point routing to reduce fuel cost and more.

They both include over 33,000 trucker-friendly POIs for information on fueling stations, restaurants, rest stops, heavy duty towing services, truck and trailer repair shops, truck-friendly hotels, weigh stations, certified scales, and more coming from ProMiles and TruckDownDatabase partner TomTom which provides more than 1 million additional miles of road coverage in the U.S. than the competing map.

Other features include hours-of-Service timers and more.

Aug 22, 2012 garmin, gps navigation, truck gps

Garmin today announced dezl 760, another truck gps navigation system from the company with a 7″ screen. A new feature on the new Dezl 760 is the Active Lane Guidance feature which tries to help truckers with intersections and lanes. Other features include the ability to log hours of service, and a loud speaker so you can hear over the engine.

Other features of the new Garmin dezl760lmt include truck-specific routes and turn-by-turn directions based on vehicle’s size and weight. Another logging feature on this new Garmin is the fuel usage and it also has fleet management interface.

Garmin’s new truck GPS navigation system dēzl 760 will be available end of this year and will cost $400.

Aug 3, 2012 gps navigation, tomtom

Tomtom came out with a new smartphone mounting kit for your windshield that works with iPhones or any other smartphones. The main features is that it includes bluetooth connectivity making phone calls easier. It has an embedded 2W speaker for a much needed audio boost and an extendable microphone so the other side can hear you clearly as well. It supports both portrait and landscape mode, charges your device while you’re on the go and also makes navigation a lot easier with their own GPS navigation app.

Standard default version will cost £80 while the iPhone version will cost £130 which also includes the navigation app.

Jul 24, 2012 gps navigation, gps satellites

According to a press release that came out yesterday shipment of GPS and location based services will grow at a compound annual rate of 15% during the next three years which will add up to 1 billion units by 2015.

Since countries other than US are deploying their own satellite based navigation systems such as Japan, China, and India GPS technology is expected to be embraced at a higher rate in these regions.

The study suggests most of the boost in this segment will come from smartphone based GPS systems as it was established within the past years.

Uses of GPS technology is very wide which includes academic, business, aviation, maritime, construction, scientific, weather and various other fields.

Jul 17, 2012 fenix, garmin, gps watch

Garmin came out with a new GPS watch called Garmin Fenix. It’s expected to hit the market this coming August and cost somewhere around $400. Some of the highlights of Garmin Fenix, in addition to the GPS receiver of course, is the compass, altimeter, barometer, and the optional external ANT connected temperature sensor. Some other features include the ability to plan trips and create routes, record waypoints, and record GPS bread crumb trails. You can also navigate to coordinates if you wish. You also get a 3-axis electronic compass to get your heading even when you’re stationary.

Fenix, which is water proof to 50 meters can last 50 hours in GPS mode and up to 6 weeks in plain watch mode.

See Garmin’s mini site here.

Jul 3, 2012 gps navigation

A new system have been developed to protect military vehicles from GPS jamming by using already existing radio waves to locate rather than relying on GPS satellite signals. The system uses cell phone, Wifi, and TV signals to locate a person or a vehicle but can even use GPS jamming signals to correctly get a position fix.

The system is developed by BAE Systems and it intends to keep military drones safe from GPS spoofing attacks which we recently mentioned here on Navigadget.

Known as NAVSOP, this technology scavenges radio signals from the air and can work indoors or even underground where wimpy GPS satellite signals can’t reach. This technology could replace GPS in the future.

Jun 29, 2012 gps navigation, tomtom

TomTom just announced that they’re enabling all of its 60 million GPS navigation systems to receive daily map changes via the TomTom Map Share community. If you haven’t heard of Map Share before; it is a crowd sourced system that allows drivers to update TomTom map on their own device, but also receive changes from other TomTom users.

With Map Share drivers can quickly share frequent road changes. Some longer term changes such as new roads or roundabouts are validated via TomTom and made available quarterly.

Best gps navigation system android :: palpoticount

10/28/2016 23:34




















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